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1600-1625; England; Anonymous gift; Silk, silver and silver gilt metallic threads, and pearls on linen canvas
Acc. Num: 1971-1465adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,pre-1675,metallic,
1600-1625; England; Silk, metallic threads, linen ground, wood
Acc. Num: 1956-554container,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,pre-1675,
1600-1625; England; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Silk and metallic needlework on linen canvas
This bag has worked eyelets for a drawstring, which is missing; the long braided handle is a later replacement.
Acc. Num: 1991-489container,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,pre-1675,
1610-1620; England; Leather, silk, silver gilt metallic threads, purl, and plate
Gloves were important fashionable and symbolic accessories for men and women. Gloves were often given as gifts and as mementos at funerals. Bishops sometimes wore gloves during Roman Catholic services. This glove with a pink cuff has a history of being a man's wedding glove.
Acc. Num: 1968-105clothing,adult,genderm,fmlacc,fashnacc,accessory,wedding,glove,pre-1675,
1610-1620; England; Knitted silk, silver and gold metallic threads, linen, unknown stiffening
Acc. Num: 1974-1101clothing,adult,genderm,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,glove,pre-1675,
ca. 1640; France; Abraham Bosse (ca. 1602-1676)
Acc. Num: 1967-331clothing,pandps,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,pre-1675,
1640-1645; England; Linen, linen bobbin lace
The term "falling band" describes the transition away from heavily starched standing ruffs, or bands, that men and women wore around their necks before about 1640. After that date, people wore softer collars that appeared to have "fallen" to lie flat against the shoulders, such as this example. A collar made as a separate accessory was easily removed for laundering. Pristine white linen accessories indicated status and gentility, because the wearer was wealthy enough to change linens as they got soiled. The collar comes with matching removable cuffs.
Acc. Num: 1956-144clothing,adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,collar,pre-1675,
1649; Mediterranean area, probably Algeria for export; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Woven silk
Garters consisted of long narrow ribbons or tapes tied tightly over the stocking tops. This is one of several surviving pairs of seventeenth-century garters with the word "Jerusalem" woven in as part of the design. Garters such as these reached England and America. Judge Samuel Sewall of Boston received a pair as a gift in 1688. He was told the garters had been woven in Algeria by a Jewish person.
Acc. Num: 1991-491, 1-2clothing,adult,genderf,genderm,underwear,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,garter,pre-1675,
1650-1720; England; Anonymous gift; Silk sprang embroidered with silk and silver metallic threads
This purse is made in an ancient technique called sprang, in which threads are stretched on a frame and manipulated with the fingers to interlink or twine them, working from the ends toward the middle, and often using a stick to control the twists and keep them from unraveling. The resulting fabric has natural elasticity, similar to knitted products, although the techniques are very different.
Acc. Num: 1971-1421container,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pre-1675,1675-1710,1710-1740,
1650-1680; England or Europe, possibly Italy; Anonymous gift; Silver wire, silks
Small decorative purses were popular accessories for presenting gifts of money and for holding sweet-smelling herbs and perfumed substances. This purse has eyelets or holes near the top for drawstring closures.
Acc. Num: 1971-1413container,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,pre-1675,1675-1710,
ca. 1660; England; Silk brocaded with silver metallic threads, silver gilt lace trim, wood, leather, silk lining
Acc. Num: 1947-213clothing,adult,genderf,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,shoe,slipper,pre-1675,
ca. 1665; London, England; Gift of Edward P. Hamilton; Silver, glass, enamel, gold, steel; Samuel Betts (d. ca. 1673)
This watch not only tells the time but also the date. It has a calendar ring with numbers 1 through 31 around the outside of the dial. The calendar ring rotates counter-clockwise.
Acc. Num: 1954-204adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,watch,jewelry,pre-1675,
1675; England; Wool embroidery on linen warp/ cotton weft textile
Women used workbags to carry their knitting, sewing, and knotting supplies in the home or when they went out visiting. Crewel wool embroidery using one color was fashionable from about 1650 to 1700. Unlike multicolor embroidered textiles, single-colored designs were outlined and filled in with veining or dots instead of shading. Although this example is English, Americans embroidered in this style: Samuel Sewall of Boston ordered fustian (a cotton and linen textile similar to this workbag) and green wool for an embroidery project for his daughters in 1687.
Acc. Num: 2009-12container,adult,genderf,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,pre-1675,1675-1710,
1678; France; Hand-colored line engraving on paper; Sebastien Le Clerc
A man and woman in stylish seventeenth-century dress stand in a millinery shop stocked with textiles, lace, and other accessories. The man wears a newly fashionable suit with a long, flared coat that effectively hides the waistcoat and breeches he wears underneath. The woman's torso is shaped as an elongated cone, and her skirt is draped back to reveal a petticoat. This style of wearing the skirt open to show a decorative petticoat persisted for more than a century.
Acc. Num: 1961-72clothing,accessory,fshn,fashnacc,adult,genderf,genderm,1675-1710,pandps,
1680-1720; England; Gift of Dr. Thomas Teakle Upshur IV and Mr. Robert Irving Upshur; Silver, malacca (cane similar to bamboo), iron
Acc. Num: 2008-157adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,walking stick,cane,1675-1710,1710-1740,
1696; Constantinople or Mediterranean Area; Leather, silver wire, silk, linen
A relatively large number of similarly embroidered pocketbooks were inscribed with the city names "Constantinople" in Turkey and "Tetuan" in northern Morocco. The surviving examples date from the late seventeenth century to the third quarter of the 18th century. Perhaps the pocketbooks were souvenirs of travels, but were they actually embroidered in the locations written on them? The English diarist Samuel Pepys had a similar pocketbook embroidered with his name, "Saml Pepys Esq" and "Constantinople Anno 1687." Yet Pepys was not in Constantinople that year, and we assume the wallet may have been a gift.
Acc. Num: 1960-347container,adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,pocketbook,purse,1675-1710,
1700-1720; England; Leather embroidered with silver gilt and silk
Acc. Num: 1947-212, 1-2metallic,clothing,adult,genderm,fmlacc,fashnacc,accessory,gloves,1675-1710,1710-1740,
ca. 1700; Europe; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Ribbed silk embroidered with silk and silver metallic threads
Acc. Num: 1991-496metallic,clothing,adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,evydyacc,cap,1675-1710,
1700-1750; France; Silk satin embroidered with silk, silver, and silver gilt
Richly embellished bags were used for a variety of purposes. Some were used to present gifts of money, not unlike paper gift bags or cards today. Some held a tiny Bible or prayer book. Yet others held sweet-scented powders to scent clothing or one's person. For this reason, small pocketbooks were sometimes called "sweet bags."
Acc. Num: 1952-161metallic,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1675-1710,1710-1740,1740-1750,
1700s; Europe; Gift of the Honorable Irwin Untermyer; Silk and metallic thread needlework on silk
Many women wore embroidered kerchiefs around their necks and shoulders to fill in the low necklines of their gowns.
Acc. Num: 1954-2metallic,adult,genderf,fmlacc,fashnacc,accessory,kerchief,neckerchief,1675-1710,1710-1740,1740-1750,1750-1770,1770-1785,1785-1795,
probably 1700s; Possibly India for export; Gift of the Honorable Irwin Untermyer; Some colorful silk embroidered kerchiefs were associated with Jewish weddings in Europe, worn by brides as a symbol of modesty and as a festive accessory. The peach kerchief may originally have been worn by a Jewish bride.
Acc. Num: 1954-3metallic,adult,genderf,fmlacc,fashnacc,accessory,wedding,kerchief,neckerchief,1675-1710,1710-1740,1740-1750,1750-1770,1770-1785,1785-1795,
1700-1740; Probably England; Anonymous gift; Silk, silver metallic threads, steel
Acc. Num: 1971-1464container,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1710-1740,
1700-1750; Europe; Anonymous gift; Glass, copper, silver metallic thread
Acc. Num: 1971-145, Aadult,genderf,genderm,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,glasses,spectacles,1675-1710,1710-1740,1740-1750,
case ca. 1787; spectacles probably 1700s; England; Spectacles: brass, glass (possibly replaced); case: steel, wool, leather, silk thread; engraved "Solomon Freeman, June 25th 1787"
Acc. Num: 1967-715adult,genderf,genderm,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,spectacles,glasses,1785-1795,
1700-1830; Europe; Anonymous gift; Linen, silk lining
Acc. Num: 1971-1674clothing,adult,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,cap,all dates ,1675-1710,1815-1840,
1700-1730; Europe, probably Italy; Anonymous gift; Silk on silk
Acc. Num: 1971-1378clothing,adult,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,cap,1675-1710,1710-1740,
ca. 1700; Europe, possibly Italy; Anonymous gift; Silk and metallic threads on silk, silk ribbon trim
Acc. Num: 1971-1412container,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1675-1710,
ca. 1700; Europe; Painted paper, ivory, metal inlay
Ancient Roman gods and a goddess on this fan probably depict a scene from Virgil's Aeneid, written in 29-19 B.C. The female god Juno tried to destroy Aeneid by persuading the wind god Aeolus to blow and create a storm. Neptune, the god of the sea, intervened to save Aeneid. The fan was probably owned by a well-educated woman who was familiar with the epic Roman story.
Acc. Num: 1986-47adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,fan,1675-1710,
ca. 1700; England; Knitted cotton
Gloves without fingers, called mitts, allowed women to do needlework or other hand crafts while still keeping their arms covered.
Acc. Num: 1991-555clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,mitts,gloves,1675-1710,
1700s or 1800s; England or Europe; Anonymous gift; Silk
Acc. Num: 1971-1629, 46 and 1953-964, 1accessory,adult,genderf,trimmings,all dates,post-1840,
1700-1750; Britain; Anonymous gift; Linen decorated with linen Hollie point needlework and bobbin lace
Baby clothes were usually sewn with minute seams and fine stitches. All raw edges in this example have been turned under and neatly finished to prevent chafing and to keep seams from raveling during laundering. Hollie point was a needlework technique that used buttonhole stitches with an extra twist to create lace. This design features potted flowers. (Seen with acc. num 1991-1180)
Acc. Num: G1971-1570child,shirt,clothing,1675-1710,1710-1740,1740-1750,
Linen; Britain or America, eighteenth century; This plain cap is typical of the style worn by most men while laboring or sleeping. The durable linen and closely stitched seams survived years of wear and laundering. The cap is unlined and cut in one piece with a single seam up on side and continuing over the curved crown. The bottom rolls up to form a brim.
Acc. Num: 1999-216clothing,accessory,evrydy,adult,genderm,fashnacc,cap,1710-1740,1740-1750,1750-1770,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,underwear,sleepwear,
18th century; Europe; Anonymous gift; Linen bobbin lace
Acc. Num: G1971-1596, 2baccessory,adult,genderf,fashnacc,1710-1740,1740-1750,1750-1770,
1710; England; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Cotton embroidered with linen
This delicate apron has two small circles in which the owner's name or initials and the year are worked in drawn work. They read "Iane Riggs" and "IR 1710." At this period, the letters I and J were considered the same, so Jane Riggs's name began with a capital I, instead of a J. Can you find the inscriptions? The apron would have been pleated or gathered to a narrow tape waistband. Because apron ties were typically very narrow, the term "apron strings" was used to refer to them.
Acc. Num: 1991-524clothing,whitework,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,apron,1675-1710,1710-1740,
1720-1740; Britain; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Silk embroidered with silk and metallic threads, lined with block-printed cotton
Women wore decorative stomachers to fill in the fronts of their open bodices. The tabs at the sides were pinned to the stays or gown to hold the stomacher in position. The rare early printed cotton on the reverse of this stomacher survived only because it was used to line the silk embroidered stomacher that was worn infrequently and saved for its beauty.
Acc. Num: G1991-487clothing,accessory,fshn,adult,genderf,stomacher,1710-1740,1740-1750,
1720-1740; Britain; Silk embroidered with silk and metallic threads, lined with block-printed cotton
Women wore decorative stomachers to fill in the fronts of their open bodices. The tabs at the sides were pinned to the stays or gown to hold the stomacher in position. This stomacher was backed with rare early printed cotton. Seldom did the earliest printed cottons survive years of laundering and daily wear. The print on the reverse of this stomacher endured only because it was used to line the silk embroidered piece that was worn infrequently and saved for its beauty.
Acc. Num: 1993-45clothing,accessory,fshn,adult,genderf,stomacher,1710-1740,1740-1750,
1725; England; Tablet woven silk
Stocking garters consisted of ribbons or other woven tapes that were tied tightly around the leg. Rubber elastic was not yet available. This garter has an inscription that reads, "Wove Without Sight." Because the other garter from the set is missing, the rest of the saying or verse cannot be determined.
Acc. Num: 1956-17clothing,accessory,fashnacc,garter,adult,genderf,genderm,1710-1740,
1727; Tetuan, Northern Morocco, or Mediterranean Area; Leather, silver metallic threads, paper
The "Tetuan" pocketbook is interlined with old English-language printed papers, suggesting that it was made in an English-speaking area or under the direction of a British merchant.
Acc. Num: 1936-587container,adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,pocketbook,purse,1710-1740,
1730-1750; England; Silk brocaded with silver gilt, lined with linen and silk, leather soles, wooden heels
Acc. Num: 1952-356, 1-2metallic,clothing,adult,genderf,fmlacc,accessory,shoes,1710-1740,1740-1750,
1730-1740; England; Anonymous gift; Silk embroidered with metallic threads
Some aprons were fashionable, not functional. Short silk aprons with elaborate silk and metallic needlework were especially stylish in the 1730s and early 1740s. This professionally embroidered apron has shiny gilt embroidery and sequins, sometimes called "paillettes."
Acc. Num: 1971-1539metallic,clothing ,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,apron,1710-1740 ,
1730-1745; France or Germany; Silk embroidered with silk and silver-gilt threads
Small purses embroidered with silk and metal threads were often used as elaborate packaging for gifts of money.
Acc. Num: 1985-224container,accessory,adult,genderf,genderm,purse,pocketbook,fashnacc,1710-1740,1740-1750,
1730-1760; England or France; Anonymous gift; Linen on linen, linen bobbin lace, linen lining
Acc. Num: 1971-1375clothing,adult,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,cap,1710-1740,1740-1750,1750-1770,
1730-1750; Europe, probably Italy; Anonymous gift; Silk and metallic threads on silk, silver lace, silk-wrapped vellum topknot, linen lining, unknown stiffening (possibly paper)
Acc. Num: 1971-1382clothing,adult,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,cap,1710-1740,1740-1750,
1730-1760; Europe; Anonymous gift; Linen bobbin lace
Acc. Num: 1971-1596, 7Eadult,genderf,genderm,accessory,trimmings,1710-1740,1740-1750,1750-1770,
1730-1740; England; Anonymous gift; Silk embroidered with silk and silver metallic threads, replaced waistband and ribbon
Elegant silk and silver embroidery edges the apron and outlines what were originally intended as two pocket openings near the waist. The openings were never cut open for pockets, however. The apron would originally have been gathered or pleated to a narrow waistband made from a ribbon or tape. The waistband has been replaced by a later casing. Aprons such as this were professionally embroidered.
Acc. Num: 1971-1540clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,apron,1710-1740,
ca. 1730; Europe, probably France or Italy; Paper, paint, tortoise shell, mother of pearl, gilding
The classical scene painted on this fan suggests that its owner was well-educated and familiar with mythological stories. The story may be that of Theseus.
Acc. Num: 1953-228adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,fan,1710-1740,
1730-1740, altered later in eighteenth century; Britain; Anonymous gift; Cotton embroidered with linen, linen-cotton back, lining missing
This child's white embroidered waistcoat was made from a larger one sized to fit a man. The boy's waistcoat was cut down around the edges, interrupting the embroidery design without regard for its original contours. The pocket flaps were repositioned directly on top of the densest portion of needlework. In unaltered examples, flaps were usually stitched within a blank area framed by the embroidery design.
Acc. Num: G1971-1577fshn,adult,genderm,child,waistcoat,clothing,1710-1740,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1736; England; Gift of Mr. and Mrs. David Stockwell; Oil on canvas
The posture, clothing, and accessories of the members of this gentry family signal high status, a leisurely lifestyle, and awareness of the latest fashions. The 24-year-old heir, Philip, sits at far left wearing a full powdered wig that makes him appear older than his actual age. His suit coat has deep cuffs and full skirts. His pose seems calculated to display a waistcoat that is embellished with embroidery or brocading. The women and girls, including the widow in black and white clothing, have gowns with cuffed sleeves and cone-shaped bodices with high bust lines. The girl holding a cat was ten years old at the time the painting was done. Her youth is indicated by her gown that fastens at the back.
Acc. Num: G1971-3374clothing,accessory,fshn,fashnacc,adult,genderf,genderm,mourning,child,pandps,1710-1740,
1736-1742; Britain, worn in America; Gift of Mrs. Theodore Dreier; Silk brocaded with silk
Brocaded silks of the 1730s had bold designs that appeared three-dimensional.
Acc. Num: G1992-85Aclothing,fshn,adult,genderf,textile,1710-1740,1740-1750,
1737, repaired later; England; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Linen embroidered with silk through coarser linen interlining, replaced linen lining and backing
This pocket probably was the product of a professional embroiderer who did needlework for a living. Most women wore their pockets hidden under their petticoats.
Acc. Num: 1989-437container,adult,genderf,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,underwear,pocket,1710-1740,
1740; England, the silk Spitalfields; 1775-1780; Gift of Tasha Tudor; Silk damask, linen lining
Acc. Num: 2000-133clothing,adult,genderf,fshn,gown,1740-1750,1770-1785,
1740-1775; Europe, possibly France; Linen bobbin lace
Acc. Num: 1985-126, 1-2accessory,adult,genderf,fashnacc,sleeve ruffles,1740-1750,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1740-1775; England or Europe; Cotton embroidered with linen, later waistband
Acc. Num: 1952-68clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,apron,1740-1750,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1740-1775; China for export to west; Ivory, painted paper, metal and paste rivet
Acc. Num: 1986-49adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,fan,1740-1750,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1740-1760; England; Linen, silk marking thread; paper
An envelope asserts that this was the "Stock of George 2nd," king of England from 1727 to 1760. Although the envelope dates to the 19th century and is not conclusive as documentation, the account may be true. The history is made more believable by virtue of the tiny cross-stitched crown and the number 46 stitched on the back of the tapered tab. The number suggests that the owner had at least 45 other stocks. The incredibly fine stitching and materials also help to support the history.
Acc. Num: 1993-166clothing,adult,genderm,fmlacc,fashnacc,accessory,stock,neckwear,1740-1750,1750-1770 ,
ca. 1740-1750; England; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Silk trimmed with silk braid, leather, wood
These shoes are embellished with applied braid similar to those in the portrait of Deborah Glen of Albany, painted about 1739. In period documents, shoes such as these would be called "laced," not to be confused with shoes with ties. These would be fastened with buckles.
Acc. Num: 1991-557, 1-2clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,shoes,1740-1750,
1740-1750, the buckles possibly ca.1790; London, England, worn in Maine; Purchase partially funded by Margie and Harold Gill, Kimberly Ivey, Linda Baumgarten and John Watson, and Liza and Wallace Gusler in memory of Mildred Lanier; Shoes: silk brocaded with silk, leather, linen, paper; buckles: silver, paste stones, steel; shoes: Thomas Ridout and James Davis
Acc. Num: 2008-139, 1-2clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,shoes,buckle,1740-1750,1785-1795,worn in America ,
1740-1770; France; Linen needlepoint lace
Acc. Num: 1953-152, 1clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,cap,trimmings,lappet,1740-1750,1750-1770,
1740-1750; France, possibly Alençon; Linen needlepoint lace
Acc. Num: 1953-156, 1clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,cap,trimmings,lappet,1740-1750,
ca. 1740; England; Gold, paste, colored foil, enamel
Acc. Num: 1953-61, 1-2adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,jewelry,earrings,1740-1750,
1740; London, England; Gold, rose gold, glass, copper alloy, steel, lead, pinchbeck (copper-zinc alloy), cornelian (a semi-precious gemstone), chalcedony (quartz crystal), paper, silk velvet
Chatelaines were brooches or hooks suspended from the waist with pendants of useful implements, such as household keys, thimble cases, seals, watches, and the like. This chatelaine includes a watch, a watch key for winding the watch, and two seals for stamping the wax seal of a letter. The word chatelaine came to mean the mistress of a household.
Acc. Num: 1952-601adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,jewelry,watch,1740-1750,
1740; England; Ivory, printed and painted paper
This fan depicts a 1739 battle in the Caribbean between Great Britain and Spain. Porto Bello in Panama was a Spanish naval base; the British won the Battle of Porto Bello and took over the base, to great acclaim at home.
The Spanish-British war of the 1730s and 1740s was usually called the War of Jenkins Ear. The title came from a commercial sea captain named Robert Jenkins, who displayed before Parliament his severed ear damaged in 1731 by Spanish coast guards who had boarded his ship.
Acc. Num: 1981-195adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,fan,1710-1740,1740-1750,
1740-1760; Europe; Cotton embroidered with linen
Sleeve ruffles were usually shaped to be narrower at the inside crook of the arm, gradually lengthening so they fell gracefully from the back of the elbow.
Acc. Num: 1985-130clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,sleeve ruffles,1740-1750,1750-1770,
textile 1740-1760, gown remade 1780-1800; British textile, possibly worn in New York; Worsted damask, bodice lined with linen, reproduction kerchief and petticoat
A widow may have worn this black worsted gown. Alterations and numerous mended holes are evidence that the garment saw many years of use. Typical of most elaborately patterned worsted textiles, this fabric measures only 17 inches between the selvages.
Acc. Num: 1989-446clothing,fshn,adult,genderf,mourning,gown,1740-1750,1750-1770,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,
1740; London, England; Ivory, mother of pearl, brass, watercolor on printed paper; M. Gamble
Fans often celebrated current events, such as the 1739 Battle of Portobello, an acclaimed British victory over the Spanish in Panama. This fan is also a good pictorial source for everyday clothing. Some of the sailors depicted on this fan wear jackets and short trousers typical of workingmen's clothing. Trousers of the eighteenth century were loose, comfortable pants that ranged from knee- to ankle-length.
Acc. Num: 1981-195accessory,evrydy,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,fan,trousers,jacket,
1740-1750; Brussels; From the collection of Marian Powys; Linen bobbin lace
Although women's everyday caps were made of plain white linen or cotton, expensive dress caps were sometimes fashioned from handmade lace. The long decorative strips hanging from the cap were called lappets.
Acc. Num: 1953-187clothing,accessory,fshn,adult,genderf,fashnacc,cap,1740-1750,
1740-1755; Europe or Britain; Uncut and voided velvet trimmed with metallic tape and buttons, waistband lined with linen
Typical of men's breeches before about 1750, this pair fastens with a buttoned placket down the center front. Probably to save fabric, the tailor cut the breeches with the pattern running in two different directions on the front and back.
Acc. Num: 1954-277clothing,fshn,adult,genderm,breeches,1740-1750,1750-1770,
ca. 1741; England; Bone, printed and painted paper, wood, copper alloy
The Battle of Cartagena, which took place in 1741, brought together English and American forces in a battle against Spain over control of Spain's holdings in the Caribbean. In contrast to Porto Bello, the British were unsuccessful at Cartagena, partly due to disease. Cartagena is located on the Caribbean Sea in present-day Colombia, South America.
Acc. Num: 1985-109adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,fan,1740-1750,
1742-1746; London, England; Enamel on copper, gold; Studio of Christian Friedrich Zincke (1684-1767)
As the engraved inscription around the miniature indicates, William Gooch died in 1742 at the age of 27. The miniature portrait was painted after his death as a memorial, possibly copying a larger portrait of him. As the only son of Virginia's royal governor, Sir William Gooch, and his wife, young William lived in the Williamsburg Governor's Palace.
Acc. Num: 2000-39clothing,pandps,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,mourning,jewelry,miniature,1740-1750,america,
1742, engraving reprinted 1808; London, England; Hard-ground etching and engraving on paper; engraved by Samuel Phillips after a painting by William Hogarth
The central female figure wears a tentlike sack dress with loose flowing pleats at front and back, a style that had come into fashion around the 1720s. Eventually, the sack gown evolved to one with fitted front and pleated back. The man's suit has large cuffs and full skirts pleated at the sides.
Acc. Num: 1950-697clothing,accessory,fshn,fashnacc,adult,genderf,genderm,pandps,1740-1750,
1745-1750; altered 1770; Britain; Silk brocaded with silk and silver gilt threads, stomacher trimmed with silver-gilt lace and silk flowers, bodice lined with linen, sleeves lined with silk, reproduction neck ruffle
Despite remodeling that is especially evident in the piecing of the sack back, this gown has superlative beauty. The heavily embellished gold stomacher and gilt brocading threads glitter in the light. Wavy lines of applied trim add extra pattern to the already lavish skirt front. The petticoat, or skirt worn beneath the outer gown, is made of a different silk textile, possibly because the original petticoat was cut up for the remodeling.
Acc. Num: 1968-646, 1-3clothing,frml,genderf,adult,gown,petticoat,stomacher,1740-1750,1770-1785,
1745; London, England; Thomas Burford (1710-1774)
Acc. Num: 1988-291, 5clothing,pandps,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,1740-1750,
1745-1775; England; Silver, paste, steel
Acc. Num: 1979-245, 1-2adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,buckle,1740-1750,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1749; Constantinople or Mediterranean area; Silk satin embroidered with silk and silver gilt metallics
Acc. Num: 1990-3metallic,adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1740-1750,
1750-1785; Various objects, seen on the following pages
From 1760 to 1780, women's gowns had closely-fitted bodices, sleeves that usually ended just below the elbows, and full skirts. The gown was only a small part of the look, however. Delicate and expensive white accessories, such as kerchiefs, aprons, and sleeve ruffles could dress up a plain dark gown. Shoes and stockings protected the feet, but also allowed the wearer to show off the latest fashion in the shape of the toe or the height of the heel. Removable shoe buckles changed the appearance of a pair of shoes while also serving to fasten the shoes in place.
Acc. Num: n/aclothing,genderf,adult,accessory,fashnacc,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1750-1800; Various objects, seen on the following pages; reproduction wig, shirt, stock, breeches, stockings, and shoes
The well-dressed man needed more than a suit to assure his place in fashionable society. From the wig or hat on his head to the tips of his buckled shoes, gentlemen's accessories could be practical, stylish, or both. Pastel colors and glittery stones were considered manly and appropriate for dressy occasions.
Acc. Num: n/aclothing,genderm,adult,accessory,fashnacc,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1750-1785; Possibly England; Steel, tortoise, glass
Acc. Num: 1952-487, Aadult,genderm,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,spectacles,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1750-1785; England or Continental Europe; Jewelry: paste stones, silver, shown with reproduction ribbon on mannequin; Case: gilt leather, velvet, silk damask, wood, copper alloy hinge
Although they may look like diamonds, less expensive paste stones set in silver created a brilliant effect in this matching set of necklace and earrings for pierced ears. The necklace has loops at the ends for ribbons to tie around the neck. The box has padded interior wells for housing the three matching pieces of jewelry when not worn.
Acc. Num: 1960-878, 1-3metallic,genderf,fmlacc,accessory,jewelry,earrings,necklace,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1750-1800; England; Anonymous gift; Silk sprang (oblique frame twining), metallic threads
Acc. Num: 1971-1423container,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1750-1770,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,
1750-1790; Probably France; Gift of Mrs. William Meredith; Silver metallic threads and silver plate on wooden form, linen thread
Acc. Num: 1971-20, 21adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,button,1750-1770,1770-1785,1785-1795,
1750-1785; England, worn in New York; Paste stones, rose gold, silver, steel
According to family tradition, these buckles were handed down in the Van Rensselaer-Sanders family of New York. Family members wore them at their weddings as late as 1922. Note the T-shaped fitting on the back to slip through a buttonhole in the breeches knee band.
Acc. Num: 1964-297, 3 and 4adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,wedding,jewelry,buckle,1750-1770,1770-1785,worn in America,
1750-1770; England; Gold, malacca; marked I. K., possibly Jasper Kelly
Acc. Num: 1979-40adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,cane,walking stick,1750-1770,
1750-1770; England; Gilded copper alloy, lacquered ebony, reproduction tassel
Acc. Num: 2008-36adult,genderm,fmlacc,fashnacc,accessory,walking stick,cane,1770-1785,
ca. 1750; England; Frame-knitted silk
These stockings were knitted as flat pieces using stocking frames operated by male workmen. The foot or sole sections were knitted separately. The two pieces making up each stocking were then sewn together by female workers. Decorative areas at the ankles, called clocks, were either put in during the knitting process, as in these two examples, or embroidered after the stocking was taken off the frame.
The stocking frame was invented in 1589 by Englishman William Lee. Although professionally frame-knit stockings were available for purchase, many housewives knit their family's stockings by hand using knitting needles.
Acc. Num: 1975-182, 1clothing,adult,genderf,genderm,underwear,fashnacc,accessory,stockings,hose,1750-1770,
ca. 1750; England; Frame-knitted silk
These stockings were knitted as flat pieces using stocking frames operated by male workmen. The foot or sole sections were knitted separately. The two pieces making up each stocking were then sewn together by female workers. Decorative areas at the ankles, called clocks, were either put in during the knitting process, as in these two examples, or embroidered after the stocking was taken off the frame.
The stocking frame was invented in 1589 by Englishman William Lee. Although professionally frame-knit stockings were available for purchase, many housewives knit their family's stockings by hand using knitting needles.
Acc. Num: 1954-1051, 1clothing,adult,genderf,genderm,underwear,fashnacc,accessory,stockings,hose,1750-1770,
mid-1700s; probably America; Gold; marked IB in rectangle (maker unidentified)
Women sometimes wore sleeve buttons to fasten their shift sleeves. In the portrait of Deborah Glen, she holds up her right arm to show her fine lace-edged shift with two buttonholes in the cuff for removable sleeve buttons, linked together.
Acc. Num: 1952-289, 1-2adult,genderf,genderm,accessory ,jewelry,button,1750-1770,american,
mid-1700s; Probably Europe; Garnets, pearls, gold, paste repairs
Acc. Num: 1954-611adult,genderf,fmlacc,fashnacc,accessory,jewelry,1740-1750,1750-1770,
1750-1765; England or Europe; Linen embroidered with linen
Acc. Num: 1985-129clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,sleeve ruffles,1750-1770,
ca. 1750, remodeled 1760-1770; Britain; Silk brocaded with silk, lined with linen and linen-cotton, reproduction shirt ruffles
Although banyans were styled to be loose and comfortable, they were nevertheless worn with a full set of clothing underneath, including shirt, breeches, and waistcoat. This banyan has a sleeveless waistcoat made of matching fabric.
Old pleats at the front are evidence that this banyan was remade from a woman's sack-back gown. Men's clothing usually differed in pattern from women's gowns. Except for embroidered formal wear, most suits were made with solid, striped, or small-patterned textiles. Only loose banyans such as this were considered suitable for large-scale damasks or brocaded silks.
Acc. Num: 1941-208, 1-2clothing,evrydy,adult,genderm,banyan,waistcoat,1750-1770,
1750-1790; Britain, worn in New Hampshire; Felted fur trimmed with silk, lined with linen
Josiah Bartlett, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and the first governor of New Hampshire, wore this cocked hat. The modern term for this triangular style of cocking is "tricorn hat."
Acc. Num: 1960-911clothing,accessory,fshn,adult,genderm,america,fashnacc,hat,1750-1770,1770-1785,1785-1795,
ca. 1750; England; Frame-knitted silk with knitted-in clocks
The finest stockings were knitted of silk and decorated at the ankles with clocks, decorative embroidery or knitted-in designs. These knitted stockings were made on a stocking frame, or knitting machine, as two flat pieces. The curved edges of the larger piece were later joined by hand to form a center-back leg seam. The sole was a separate smaller piece that was sewn into the foot.
Acc. Num: 1975-182, 1-2clothing,accessory,fshn,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,stockings,1740-1750,1750-1770,
ca. 1755; altered 1770; Britain; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Silk brocaded with silver and silver gilt, lined with silk and linen, trimmed with later silver lace
This sumptuous gown is fashioned from stiff silk brocaded with glittering metallic silver to reflect the available light. The rich textile and wide hoops mark it as "formal" dress in an era when fashionable daytime clothing no longer had significant side fullness. Unlike many other dresses that had removable triangular stomachers, this gown has panels on the bodice that are stitched in place and closed with buttons and buttonholes down the center front. Button-front mock stomachers such as this example came into fashion during the mid-1760s.
Acc. Num: G1990-12, 1-2clothing,frml,genderf,adult,gown,petticoat,1750-1770,
ca. 1755; altered 1770; Chinese textile, made in France; Ribbed silk hand painted with pigments and silver, trimmed with silk lace, lined with linen
Chinese artisans made textiles specifically for export to Europe and America. With its intricate hand-painted floral design and silver outlines, this textile would have been a luxury item. Styled as a robe à la française (in England, known as a sack), the back has pleats at the shoulders that release into a graceful train. The mock stomacher buttons down the front. The skirt and petticoat originally had applied ruffles or flounces, perhaps removed to update the gown.
Acc. Num: 1993-330, a-bclothing,frml,fashionable,genderf,adult,gown,petticoat,1770-1785,
1755; Used in Chesterfield, England; made in Tetuan, Northern Morocco or Mediterranean Area; Leather, silver gilt threads
Acc. Num: 1985-231container,adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,pocketbook,purse,1750-1770,
1755; Connecticut River Valley; Silk quilted to worsted backing, woolen batting, linen waistband; made by S. W.
This petticoat features diamonds filled with a variety of motifs, including flowers, fish, birds, and other animals; it is dated 1755 in the quilting and signed by an unknown woman whose initials were S. W. Although ready-made quilted petticoats were imported, some girls and women quilted their own petticoats at home. Many of them used imported materials, such as the silk in this example.
Acc. Num: 1994-88clothing,fshn,adult,genderf,america,petticoat,1750-1770,
1760-1785; England; Silk over straw, replaced ties
Acc. Num: 1970-104clothing,genderf,adult,accessory,fashnacc,hat,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1760-1780; England; Cotton embroidered with cotton, replaced waistband
The embroidery is worked with chain stitches and large areas of "drawnwork," in which the ground fabric is deflected, pulled, and caught with stitches to imitate lace.
Acc. Num: 1953-857whitework,clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,apron,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1760-1780; England; Silk embroidered with silk, metallic sequins, enameled metal, and silver lace
This clever workbag incorporates four compartments for needlework and knitting supplies: a small compartment at the top with flip-up lid, a drawer that pulls out from the side, a drop-down semicircular compartment with pincushion sides, and a drawstring bag with interior channels for holding knitting needles in place. The rigid structure appears to be made of paperboard and trade cards. The words "A. King's Dover Street" can be read through the thin silk. This probably refers to the as-yet unidentified milliner who made the bag.
Acc. Num: 1960-730metallic,adult,genderf,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1760-1780; France; Anonymous gift; Silk, silver gilt metallic threads, paint, paperboard, hair
Inside this pocketbook is a lock of silky hair, probably that of a child. When and why was the hair tucked into the case? Was it a loving gesture on the part of a parent or grandparent? No information was included in the pocketbook about the hair, so we may never know.
Acc. Num: 1971-1401container,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1760-1780; England or Europe, worn in Virginia; Partial gift of Diane S. Taylor; Silk velvet; linen, linen/cotton, and leather linings; silver metallic buttons and knee bands
Men's breeches, or knee-length pants, had a number of fasteners. This pair has a tab at the back for adjusting the waist size with a buckle (the buckle is missing). Other breeches had eyelets and laces for this purpose. Where the buttons were hidden by the waistcoat, or vest, they are covered with fabric. Because the lower legs and knees were more visible, elaborate silver plate and silver bullion buttons fastened the side knee openings. The band below the knees, sometimes called a garter, was buckled tightly to help hold the stockings up and keep the breeches firmly in place as the man moved. Knee buckles were removable; they had a special T-shaped fitting to allow them to be slipped in place through a buttonhole stitched in the knee band.
Acc. Num: 1992-37, 3clothing,adult,genderm,fshn,breeches,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1760-1780; England; Silver, paste stones, steel
Despite its glittering stones, this buckle would have been worn at the back of the neck, nearly hidden by the gentleman's coat collar and wig.
Acc. Num: 1952-293adult,genderm,fmlacc,fashnacc,accessory,buckle,neckwear,1750-1770,1770-1785,
ca. 1760; Probably American; Gift of Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Bond; Silver; marked PS, maker unidentified
Acc. Num: 1976-80adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,buckle,neckwear,1750-1770,america,
1760-1785; England or Europe; Cotton embroidered with linen, linen tape
Acc. Num: 1985-1282, 1clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,sleeve ruffles,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1760-1775; Possibly America; Worsted wool lined with linen, leather binding, unidentified boning
These strapless stays laced up the front instead of the back. This arrangement made them suitable for pregnant women, nursing women, and those who did not have assistance while getting dressed.
Acc. Num: 1993-336clothing,underwear,adult,genderf,maternity,nursing,stays,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1760-1780; British textile, probably worn in Virginia; Partial gift of Diane Taylor; Silk velvet trimmed with silver-bullion-and-tinsel buttons, lined with silk, linen, and linen-cotton
According to family history, a twentieth-century customer gave this suit to his tailor to settle an unpaid bill. Said to be worn by "a Virginia gentleman," the suit is made of spotted silk velvet.
Acc. Num: 1992-37, 1-3clothing,fshn,adult,genderm,america,coat,waistcoat,breeches,suit,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1760-1780; Probably England; Silver, paste stones
The knobs on one side of the buckle were slipped into worked buttonholes on the tab of a neck stock. The stock was buckled behind the man's neck.
Acc. Num: 1952-293accessory,fashnacc,buckle,1750-1770,1770-1785,stock,adult,genderm,
1760-1775; Britain; Compound-weave silk relined with modern silk and linen, breeches waistband lined with eighteenth-century linen-cotton, leather breeches pockets
Small-scale enclosed patterns such as the design of this silk textile were considered especially appropriate for men's suits.
Acc. Num: 1953-838, 1-3clothing,fshn,adult,genderm,coat,waistcoat,breeches,suit,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1760-1770, remodeled ca. 1785; France; Silk brocaded with silk, trimmed with silk fringe, bodice lined with linen, reproduction kerchief and petticoat
The serpentine, or meandering, lines in this brocaded silk are typical of 1760s design. The gown was later remodeled with the plunging neckline, edge-to-edge front closure, and S-curve silhouette that became popular after 1785.
Acc. Num: 1985-144clothing,accessory,fshn,adult,genderf,fashnacc,apron,gown,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1760-1780; Britain; Cotton embroidery on cotton
Acc. Num: 1953-857clothing,accessory,fshn,adult,genderf,fashnacc,apron,gown,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1761; England, London; Gift of Gilbert Fauquier in memory of his father, Gilbert Emilius Fauquier; Watercolor on paper or cardstock, glass, gold, rubies, paste stones backed with silver foil, garnet, reproduction ribbon; John Smart (ca. 1740-1811)
Acc. Num: 1973-246clothing,accessory,pandps,adult,genderf,genderm,fmlnacc,jewelry,miniature,1750-1770,
ca. 1761; London, England; Charles Spooner after Mary Benwell (active 1761-1800)
Acc. Num: 1971-477clothing,accessory,pandps,adult,genderf,fshn,fashnacc,1750-1770,
1765-1780; England or Europe; Silk, metallic sequins and threads, linen
Acc. Num: 1970-155clothing,adult,genderm,fshn,coat,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1765-1810; England; Mahogany
Acc. Num: 1947-278, 1-2genderf,genderm,accessory,wig,1750-1770,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,
1768-1785; Britain, worn in New York by members of the Glen-Sanders family; Steel, paste, shagreen leather, silk, paper
A paper inscription glued to the bottom of the buckle case states that Philip and Maria Van Rensselaer wore these buckles at their wedding about 1770 (it actually occurred in 1768) and that their descendants, J. Glen and Pearl Green Sanders, wore them when they married in 1922. The silk lining on the box is inscribed with the name Eliza Van Rensselaer. Eliza, or Elizabeth (1771-1798), was the daughter of Philip and Maria.
Acc. Num: 1964-297, 1-4fashnacc,buckles,wedding,adult,accessory,genderf,genderm,1750-1770,1770-1785,america,
1769-1770; England; Acquisition funded by the Antiques Collectors Guild in memory of Alvin Anderson and John Hyman; Gold, malacca, copper alloy; marked I. C. (maker unidentified)
Acc. Num: 2008-35adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,cane,walking stick,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1770-1800; France; Silk embroidery and appliquéd silk net on striped silk and ribbed silk, lined with silk and cotton-linen
The combination of multicolor embroidery on a striped ground enhances the richness of this suit. The white waistcoat contrasts with the dark coat and breeches, although the embroidered design echoes that of the coat.
Acc. Num: 1956-306, 1-3clothing,frml,genderm,adult,coat,waistcoat,breeches,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,
1770s; Probably England, worn in Massachusetts, probably by Mary Ball Willis; Gift of Tibo van der Does; Brocaded silk, linen, leather
Acc. Num: 2007-107, 1-2clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,shoes,1770-1785,worn in America,
ca. 1770; England; Plate-printed linen
This handkerchief features a scene of fox hunting in the British countryside. Can you find the fox?
A popular period hunting song is printed around the edges. A handkerchief similar to this design was worn by John Cockil, an English convict servant and barber who ran away from his Fredericksburg, Virginia, master in 1772. The March 19, 1772, Virginia Gazette newspaper states that the runaway was wearing "a red and white Handkerchief round his Neck, with a hunting Song round the Borders of it."
The verses around the edges of the handkerchief read:
Away to the Copse to the Copse lead away,
and now my Boys throw off ye Hounds.
I'll warrant he shews us he shews us some Play,
See Yonder he skulks thro the Grounds.
Then spur ye brisk Coursers & smoke e'm my Bloods
'tis a delicate scent lying Morn.
What Concert is equal to those of the Woods,
betwixt Eccho ye Hounds & ye Horn.
Each Earth see he try's at in vain,
The Cover no safer can find.
So he breaks it and scowers amain,
And leave's us at distance behind.
O'er Rocks and o'er Rivers and Hedges we fly,
All Hazard and Danger we scorn,
Stout Reynard we'll follow untill that he die.
Cheer up the Good Dogs with the Horn.
And now he scarce creeps thro' the Dale,
All parch'd from his Mouth hangs his Tongue,
His speed can no longer prevail
Nor his Life can his cunning prolong,
From our staunch & fleet Pack 'twas in vain that he fled,
See his Brush falls bemir'd forlorn,
The Farmers with Pleasure behold him lie dead
And shout to the sound of the Horn.
Acc. Num: 1966-19adult,genderf,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,handkerchief,1770-1785,used in America,
1770-1800; England or America; Silver, steel
Acc. Num: 1953-239, 1-2adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,buckle,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,
1770; London, England; Hand-colored line engraving; engraved by James Caldwell after a painting by John Collet, printed for John Smith and Robert Sayer
A sturdy Englishman endures the torture of having his wig powdered by a dandified French barber-hairdresser. The gentleman wears an apron to protect his clothing from stray powder.
Besides constructing hairpieces, wigmakers styled men and women's hair and shaved gentlemen. During the first three-quarters of the eighteenth century, most fashionable men shaved their heads and donned wigs, considered indispensable fashion accessories. Toward the end of the century, wigs gradually went out of fashion. Men began to wear their own hair, which they had styled and powdered for dressy occasions. Although few women wore wigs, some added extra curls to their own hair.
Acc. Num: 1940-174clothing,accessory,fshn,adult,genderm,pandps,evrydy,evydyacc,fashnacc,wig,1750-1770,1770-1785,
ca. 1770; Probably England; after 1800; Gift of Kathleen A. Epstein; Cotton embroidered with cotton
Sleeve ruffles cascading from the elbows went out of fashion with the newer neoclassical styles. The innovative woman who owned this pair of sleeve ruffles re-fashioned the beautiful embroidery into a collar to fill in the neckline of a dress.
Acc. Num: 1997-15clothing,adult ,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,collar,sleeve ruffles,1770-1785,1795-1815,
1770-1785; Britain; Cotton velvet lined with leather, bound with silk, stuffed with curled horsehair
Puddings were protective helmets for children learning to walk.
Acc. Num: 1952-55child,clothing,accessory,fashnacc,cap,pudding,1770-1785,
1770-1790; East Indian textile, made in Britain; Mordant-painted and dyed cotton chintz faced with silk, lined with cotton; shown with cap 1991-498
This banyan is more closely tailored than the large kimono-like gowns men also wore for informal occasions. The double-breasted front fastens closed with self-fabric ties.
Acc. Num: 1954-1010clothing,evrydy,banyan,adult,genderm,1770-1785,1785-1795,
1770-1820; New England or Britain; Linen-wool, wool hem binding, linen waistband
The striped petticoat is woven with linen warps and wool wefts. Unlike that of typical garment construction methods, the fabric here is used horizontally with the warps running around the body, not up and down. Originally discovered in Connecticut, the petticoat may be the work of a New England weaver. Similar textiles were also produced in Kendal, England.
Acc. Num: 1991-444clothing,evrydy,adult,genderf,america,petticoat,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,1815-1840,
1770-1780; Britain; Silk and silver tissue edged with sequins, lined with silk and linen
Acc. Num: 1960-711clothing,fshn,adult,genderm,waistcoat,1770-1785,
1770-1780; Britain; Silk embroidered with silk, metal purl, sequins, and paste, lined with silk and linen, linen back
Acc. Num: 1960-710clothing,fshn,adult,genderm,waistcoat,1770-1785,
1770-1780; Britain; Wool broadcloth trimmed with gilt-metallic edging and sequins, lined with glazed worsted and linen
Acc. Num: 1979-83clothing,fshn,adult,genderm,1770-1785,coat,frock,
1772; London, England; Mezzotint engraving on paper; printed for Carington Bowles
Typical of the fashion dress in the 1770s, the man wears a slim-cut suit with tight knee breeches. The woman wears a profusion of bows and ruffles on her gown and a large cap with extra height.
Acc. Num: 1952-151clothing,accessory,fshn,adult,genderf,genderm,pandps,1770-1785,
1773; London, England; Matthew Darly
Acc. Num: 1939-231pandps,adult,genderm,fashnacc,fmlacc,accessory,wig,1770-1785,
1774-1780; England; Plate-printed cotton
The English village of Dunmow in Essex had a long-standing tradition in which a married couple that had remained faithful and happy for a year could claim a "gammon" of bacon. A gammon was the lower end of a side of bacon or a smoked ham. The custom has been revived in the town of Dunmow in modern times, and is still scheduled every four years.
The verse on the handkerchief reads:
FORM OF THE OATH
You shall Swear by the custom of our confession
That you never made any Nuptial transgression,
Since you were Married Man and Wife,
By household brawls or contentious strife;
Or otherwise, in Bed, or at Board,
Offended each other in Deed, or in word;
Or since the Parish-Clerk said Amen,
Wished yourselves Unmarried again;
Or in a Twelvemonths and a Day,
Repented not in thought any way;
But continued true, and in desire,
As when you joined hands in holy quire.
If to these Conditions, without any fear,
Of your own accord you will freely swear;
A Gammon of Bacon you shall receive,
And bear it hence with love, and good leave;
For this our custom, at Dunmow well known,
Tho the sport is ours, the Bacon's your own.
Acc. Num: 1967-102adult,genderf,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,handkerchief,1770-1785,
1774; London, England; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Line engraving on paper; Matthew or Mary Darly
The expectant women in this humorous print wear a variety of kerchiefs and aprons to adapt their clothing to changing body shapes. Their skirt hems ride up in front, evidence that pregnant women did not usually modify their skirt lengths during this time. Letters and diaries reveal that women went about daily chores and socializing during pregnancy.
Acc. Num: G1985-261clothing,accessory,adult,genderf,genderm,pregnancy,maternity,nursing,pandps,1770-1785,
1775-1800; England; Silver, paste stones, steel
Acc. Num: 1954-614, 1-2adult,genderm,fmlacc,fashnacc,accessory,buckle,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,
ca. 1775; England; Gift of Sir Denys Lowson; Printed linen
John Wilkes (1725-1797) was a controversial British political figure and a member of parliament who became known for his defense of the rights of ordinary citizens. In the mid 1770s, he defended the cause of the American colonies. A handkerchief such as this would have been a popular accessory, not only for the citizens of London who shared Wilkes' political views, but also for Americans.
Wilkes holds the Magna Charta, the 1215 document that guaranteed greater rights to English citizens. Wilkes steps on papers labeled "General Warrants." This alludes to the 1763 search and arrest warrants that were issued against Wilkes and the others involved in a newspaper that Wilkes had used to criticize the administration. The handkerchief also refers to the questionable legality of general, broad-based warrants, which lacked specifics about the alleged crime.
Acc. Num: 1951-447adult,genderf,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,handkerchief,1770-1785,used in America,
ca. 1775; England or America; Silver, steel, one replaced steel chape; marked WH (maker unidentified)
Acc. Num: 1952-295, 1-2adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,buckle,1770-1785,
1775-1810; Possibly America; Spectacles: glass, brass; case: steel
Acc. Num: 1956-234, a-badult,genderf,genderm,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,spectacles,glasses,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,america,
1775-1785; London, England, worn in Maryland by Ringgold family member; Silk, linen, leather; Hose & Spier Shoemakers
Acc. Num: 1996-852, 1clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,shoes,1770-1785,worn in America ,
1775-1790; England; Buckles: silver, paste stones, copper, steel; Case: leather, wood, silk, paper
Acc. Num: 1953-237, 1A-B and 2adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,buckle,1770-1785,1785-1795,
1775-1785; Probably England, worn in New York by Glen Sanders family member; Silk, linen, leather
Acc. Num: 1964-394, 1clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,shoe,1770-1785,worn in America ,
1775-1785; Britain; Silk trimmed with silk and metallic embroidery and sequins, lined with linen
Acc. Num: 1960-707clothing,fshn,adult,genderm,waistcoat,1770-1785,
1775-1815; Textiles printed in England; gown worn in America; Block printed cotton; linen tape; linen sewing thread
For physical labor and very informal occasions, women wore loose short gowns with separate petticoats as comfortable alternatives to tight-fitting gowns with long, full skirts. Short gowns were relatively inexpensive, as they required a minimum of fabric. The printed cotton added pattern and color to an everyday garment.
This rare garment is exceptionally fragile. The iron in the mordant used for the printing has caused some colors to darken to brown and to etch through the cotton. The brown colors were probably purple when the gown was new.
The neckline and back shoulders have stitched casings and drawstrings to provide some fit to the otherwise-unshaped garment. The gown is of small size and may have been worn by a girl.
Acc. Num: 1985-242evrydy,gown,clothing,adult,genderf,child,1775-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,
1776; America; Gift of Evelyn Schroedl; Linen marked with silk; made by E F
Workingwomen wore aprons of washable linen or cotton, sometimes patterned with checks, such as this example. The unidentified maker embroidered her initials E F and 1776 in minuscule cross-stitches near the waistband.
Acc. Num: G1999-225clothing,accessory,evrydy,adult,genderf,apron,fashnacc,america,1770-1785,
1777; England; Leather, paper, steel
William Daniel had his wallet personalized with his name and the date 1777. Inside is a notebook with marbleized covers. The note pages include paper, as well as black leaves covered in paint with carbon content, similar to a slate, for making easily erasable notes.
Acc. Num: 1975-129container,adult,genderm,fashnacc,evydyacc,accessory,pocketbook,purse,1770-1785,
1777; London, England; Matthew Darly
This humorous print satirizes the fashion for large, glittering buttons on men's suits. About the same time, shoe buckles also became oversized, almost covering the instep.
Acc. Num: 1950-608clothing,pandps,adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,1770-1785,
1777; London, England; Matthew Darly (1741-1792)
Acc. Num: 1953-117pandps,adult,genderf,fashnacc,clothing,accessory,calash,hat,1770-1785,
1777; Engraved by John Martin Will after a drawing by Charles Nicolas Cochin, France; Mezzotint engraving on paper
Through his personality and wearing apparel, Benjamin Franklin helped to create the belief that Americans were individualistic, freedom-loving, and immune to royal trappings. Especially in his later years, Franklin became known for his distinctive appearance, including spectacles, a fur cap, and long hair, which he wore down instead of drawn back in a queue. Franklin appeared at the court of France's Louis XVI in 1778 without the wig that was customary formal dress. He wore a suit of plain dark velvet and no sword, causing an observer to comment, "I should have taken him for a big farmer, so great was his contrast with the other diplomats, who were all powdered, in full dress, and splashed all over with gold and ribbons."
Acc. Num: 1959-82clothing,accessory,evrydy,america,adult,genderm,fashnacc,spectacles,pandps,1770-1785,
1780-1790; Britain; Silk woven with silver-gilt threads, trimmed with silver gilt lace, sequins, gimp, and tassels, bodice lined with linen
This gown is a dramatic example of a time lag in formal clothing. Although the wide skirt was typical of mid-18th-century styles, the deep point at this gown's back waist indicates a date in the 1780s. The crisp silk textile is dotted with metallic silver threads woven from selvage to selvage, a type of fabric called "silver tissue."
Acc. Num: 1953-849, 1-2clothing,frml,genderf,adult,gown,petticoat,1770-1785,1785-1795,
1780-1800; Probably England, worn in Virginia, probably by a Prentis family member; Paste, silver, steel
Acc. Num: 1978-89, 1-2adult,genderf,genderm,fmlacc,fashnacc,accessory,buckle,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,worn in America,
1780-1790; England; Cotton, plate-printed
Women frequently carried handkerchiefs in their large tie-on pockets. During the 18th century, handkerchiefs were made of plain white linen or printed textiles, sometimes depicting a scene or sentiment. This handkerchief was also used as a game board and rules for the "Game of the Goose," which was played by throwing a pair of dice. Each player rolled the dice and added the two numbers together, advancing that number of positions on the game surface. If a player landed in one of the special locations, such as the Ale House, Well, or Prison, he or she had to abide by the rules for that location. For example, anyone landing on the Death square had to pay a penalty and start over. The player who reached 63 first without going over won the game.
The Game of the Goose
1st This Game is playd with a pair of Dice and any Number of persons
may play at it. 2nd Whatever Number it is that any one throws that person must place
his Counter in the White space under the same Number, for Example, should the Cast be 6&3 he
must place the Counter at 9, if the Cast be 6&5 he must place it at 11 & when he throws again he must add the
Number to that where his Counter lyes and so [remove] accordingly. 3rd He that throws 6 must pay a Stake
for his passage over the Bridge and go to Number 12. 4th He that throws a Goose must double his Cast for-
ward from his Cast place. 5 He that throws 19 where the Ale House is must pay a Stake & Drink
till his turn comes to throw again. 6 He that throws 31 where the Well is must stay there till every
one has thrown twice unless some One else throws the same & then he must return to that persons
place. 7th He that throws 42 where the Maze is must pay a Stake and return back to the num-
ber 29. 8th He that goeth to 52 where the Prison is must pay one and stay there a prisoner
till some One relieves him by throwing the same Number. 9th He that [seeth] to 58 where
Death is must pay One and begin again. 10th He that is overtaken by another must return to
His place that overtook him & both must pay a stake. 11 He that overthroweth the
Number 63 must return back and begin as at first.----------------
12th He that throweth the just Number 63 Winneth the Game.
Acc. Num: 1961-129adult,genderf,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,handkerchief,1785-1795,
probably 1780-1800, altered 1860-1880, with later pencil; England; Silk, gold, enamel, mother-of-pearl, ivory, steel, copper alloy, amber, paste jewels
Fitted interior compartments house the functional but beautiful implements inside: a tortoiseshell comb, mother-of-pearl folding knife and file, an ivory writing tablet, and a lead pencil for making notes.
The pocketbook hints at puzzling questions. The gold outer clasp appears to date to the late 18th century, based on its style and an analysis of the metal. The interior clasp, knife, and nail file date after 1860. Because the interior enamel clasp is backed by the pink lining, the lining must also date after 1860. Did someone remodel and reline a late 18th century purse in the 1860s or 1870s? Was the purse completely remade in the 19th century using parts from several older purses? For what occasion did someone create such a beautiful assemblage of materials?
Acc. Num: 1952-341container,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,pocketbook,purse,1770-1785,post-1840,
1780-1800; England, probably Sheffield; Anonymous gift; Silver-faced steel
Acc. Num: 1971-3504, 1adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,buckle,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,
1780-1830; England; Linen, with finer linen bands
Acc. Num: 1953-863clothing,adult,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,stock,neckwear,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,1815-1840,
1780-1830; England; Fine cotton, linen tabs and ties
Acc. Num: 1953-864clothing,adult,genderm,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,stock,neckwear,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,1815-1840,
1780-1795; England or Europe; Cotton embroidered with silk
Throughout the 18th century, women wore triangles or folded squares of fabric over the shoulders and around their necks for warmth, modesty, and decoration. These accessories were known as kerchiefs, or neck handkerchiefs. In the 19th century, similar garments were called fichus. In the 1780s, fashionable kerchiefs were large and worn puffed out over the chest. This kerchief is marked S*L in tiny cross stitches, the initials of the unknown wearer.
Acc. Num: 1985-131clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,kerchief,fichu,1770-1785,1785-1795,
1780-1800; Probably France; Silk embroidered with silk, silk flowers, silk lace
Acc. Num: 1958-26container,adult,genderf,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,
ca. 1780; France; Silk embroidered with silk, metal sequins, silk fringe
Acc. Num: 1958-27container,adult,genderf,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1770-1785 ,
1780; London, England; Carington Bowles
Acc. Num: 1958-356clothing,pandps,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,1770-1785,
ca. 1780; England; Silk, reeds
Calashes had a series of reeds or other flexible materials inserted between channels in the silk to hold the bonnet away from the head and thus preserve elaborate hair styles from being crushed. The name of the calash came from a type of carriage with a folding hood, not unlike the cloth convertible top on a modern automobile.
Acc. Num: 1960-723clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,bonnet,calash,1770-1785,
ca. 1780; England; Silk, reeds
Acc. Num: 1960-722clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,bonnet,calash,1770-1785,
1780-1795; Britain; Cotton quilted to linen backing and cotton batting, reproduction shift
This ensemble consists of a jacket, petticoat, and a vest worn under the jacket. The sleeveless vest, which has adjustable lacings at the center back, expands the waist size for use during pregnancy. The jacket can also be worn without the vest.
Acc. Num: 1936-666, 1-3clothing,pregnancy,maternity,nursing,adult,genderf,jacket,petticoat,1770-1785,1785-1795,
ca. 1780; London, England; Carington Bowles
The mother has pushed aside her gown and kerchief to nurse her child.
Acc. Num: 1971-476clothing,accessory,pregnancy,nursing,adult,child,genderf,genderm,pandps,1770-1785,missing,
1780-1820; Britain; Mohair and wool velvet lined with cotton
Long-nap wool or mohair velvet, called shagg, was popular for workingmen's clothing and livery breeches. In contrast to today's construction methods, these breeches were cut with the nap running in different directions on the front and back, a feature that is especially evident at the inseam. Cutting the breeches in this way may have saved fabric.
Acc. Num: 1954-1036clothing,evrydy,adult,genderm,breeches,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,1815-1840,
ca. 1780, altered ca. 1800; France or England; Block-printed cotton trimmed with silk binding, lined with linen, metal lacing rings
This jacket was modified to keep up with fashion. Without altering the basic cut of the original garment, the owner roughly stitched a strip of self-fabric above the natural waist for holding a petticoat in position after fashion dictated higher waistlines.
Acc. Num: 2000-86clothing,accessory,evrydy,adult,genderf,jacket,1770-1785,1785-1795,1795-1815,
1780-1795; France, possibly imported to Virginia; Silk compound weave with supplementary wefts
Intended for a man's waistcoat, this panel descended in an Accomack, Virginia, family. The reason it was never cut and sewn into a finished garment remains a mystery.
Acc. Num: 1954-284clothing,fshn,adult,genderm,america,1770-1785,1785-1795,waistcoat,
ca. 1782; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Linen, silk marking threads
According to a paper document that came with the stockings, they were hand knitted by Catherine Jansen Wistar (1703-1786), probably for her daughter Sarah Wistar, whose initials SW are cross-stitched on the stockings. The Wistars were Quakers from Philadelphia. Women continued hand-knitting stockings, even though professionally frame-knitted stockings were also being produced. If the family tradition is correct, these stockings were knitted about the time the Revolutionary War was ending when imported goods were still scarce.
Acc. Num: 2009-43, 4 a-bclothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,underwear,stockings,hose,1770-1785,american,
ca. 1784, sleeve buttons 1730-1760; Probably Maine; Gift of Mrs. Charles D. Carey; Linen trimmed with linen bobbin lace, gold
This lace-trimmed shirt and cuff links have a history of use by Jane Hodge (later Mrs. Thomas Nichols) of Maine. She was born in 1784. The linked gold buttons descended in the family with the shirt, although their design appears earlier than the 1780s; they may have been handed down from a previous generation. (Seen with acc. num 1971-1570)
Acc. Num: G1991-1180, 1-2child,shirt,fashnacc,fshn,jewelry,clothing,accessory,1710-1740,1740-1750,1750-1770,1770-1785,
1785-1800; Probably England; Anonymous gift; Glass, iron
Acc. Num: 1971-1236adult,genderf,genderm,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,spectacles,glasses,1785-1795,1795-1815,
1785-1840; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Cotton
These mitts descended in a family of Philadelphia Quakers, a group conservative in their choice of clothing and accessories. For that reason, the mitts, which appear fashionable for the 1780s or 1790s, might have been used well into the 19th century.
Acc. Num: 2009-43, 6 A-Bclothing,adult,genderf,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,mitts,gloves,1785-1795,1795-1815,1815-1840,america,
ca. 1785; London, England; Robert Dighton (1752-1814) and Carington Bowles
Acc. Num: 1972-177, 3clothing,accessory,pandps,adult,genderf,fshn,1770-1785,1785-1795,
ca. 1785; London, England; Robert Dighton (1752-1814) and Carington Bowles
Acc. Num: 1972-177, 7clothing,accessory,pandps,adult,genderf,fshn,1770-1785,1785-1795,
1785-1810; Europe, possibly France; Silk, silk chenille and gauze, metallic sequins and bullion, paint; replaced lining and cotton stuffing
The hand-painted ornament depicts the allegorical figure of Hope with her anchor. The muff originally had strings or ribbons drawn through channels on the ends to snug the fit around the wrists. Faint stitch marks show the original position of the drawstring channels. Muffs were important fashion accessories during this period, worn even indoors.
Acc. Num: 1958-25clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,muff,1785-1795,1795-1815,
ca. 1785; Geneva, Switzerland; Gift of Edward P. Hamilton; Gold, pearls, enameling, copper; interior works steel, copper alloy, gold, silver; Baumier, Viala, Marchand & Co.
A watch chain would help secure a valuable watch from loss, while keeping it readily available for telling the time.
Acc. Num: 1954-202jewelry,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,watch,1785-1795,
1785-1820; England; Silver, paste stones, iron/steel
Acc. Num: 1954-614, 1-2accessory,fashnacc,buckle,shoe,adult,genderf,genderm,1785-1795,1795-1815,1815-1840,
1790-1820; France; Gifts of Mark A. Clark; Velvet and ribbed silk embroidered with silk, lined with silk, interlined and padded with wool and cotton batting, cotton pockets, reproduction breeches
Eighteenth-century formal suits were often masterpieces of the embroiderer's art. This suit coat of rich blue cut and voided silk velvet is strewn with colorful flowers that are beautifully designed and worked with great skill. The coordinating waistcoat has the same flowers worked on a white ground.
Acc. Num: G1971-433, G1971-429clothing,frml,genderm,adult,coat,1785-1795,1795-1815,
1790-1840; Probably England; Anonymous gift; Knitted silk top; buttonhole stitched needle lace base of silk and metallic threads; metal ring
Acc. Num: 1971-1458container,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,purse,1785-1795,1795-1815,1815-1840,
1790-1840; England; Anonymous gift; Knitted silk and metallic threads, metal rings
Acc. Num: 1971-1427container,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,purse,1785-1795,1795-1815,1815-1840,,
ca. 1790; England, used in Virginia; Gift of Elizabeth Wilson; Buckles: silver, paste stones, copper, steel; Case: leather, wood, paper, later foil lining
The family of Virginian John Minson Galt (1744-1808) cherished his shoe buckles as mementos of the illustrious physician and patriot. A later family member relined the case and wrote the history on a piece of paper: "Shoe Buckles that belonged to my gr, gr, Grandfather, Dr. John Minson Galt, Chief surgeon Va. Military Troops during the Revolutionary War.—Alex Galt Robinson."
Acc. Num: 1980-27, 1, A-B and 2adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,buckle,1785-1795,worn in America,
1790s; England; Anonymous gift; Silver, steel
Acc. Num: 1971-3504, 2adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,buckle,1785-1795,1795-1815,
ca. 1790; England, possibly worn in Virginia; Silver, steel
Acc. Num: 1978-88adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,neckwear,buckle,1785-1795,worn in America ,
ca. 1790; France; P. M. Alex after a painting by Amédée Vanloo
Acc. Num: 1994-74accessory,pandps,adult,genderm,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,spectacles,glasses,1785-1795,
1790-1797; England, used in Connecticut; Paper, metallic sequins, paint, bone
Descended along with the portrait of Deborah Richmond of Connecticut (1974.100.3), this fan appears to be the very one she holds in her hand. The fan was a souvenir of Bath in England, perhaps presented to Deborah as a gift.
Acc. Num: 1975.310.1adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,fan,1785-1795,1795-1815,used in America,
1790-1835; Probably France; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Silk, metal springs
Garters using coiled metal springs encased in silk were invented in the 1780s. They were intended to replace earlier garters that consisted of ribbons or tapes tied tightly around the leg. Martin Van Butchell, a surgeon-dentist in England, applied for a patent for spring bands in 1783, followed closely the next year by another English inventor named Jean Philippe, who applied for a patent using tempered steel in his spring garters. By the 1840s, elastic was introduced, making spring garters obsolete.
Acc. Num: 1985-263clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,underwear,garter,1785-1795,1795-1815,1815-1840,
1790-1800; New York, worn by Ann Van Rensselaer; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Linen
Unlike knee-length shifts women wore beneath their gowns, this shortened style with front opening was used during the lying-in period following childbirth. The hip-length shifts would be easier than longer ones to keep stain-free during the mother's recuperation from childbirth. They were also more comfortable and convenient for sitting up in bed to receive company. Stitch marks indicate that the shift originally had a drawstring under the bust. This shift has a tradition of ownership by Ann Van Cortlandt Van Rensselaer of Albany, New York. Although Van Rensselaer did not have any living children, one can speculate that she had prepared a set of clothing in anticipation of childbirth after her 1787 marriage to Philip Van Rensselaer. Perhaps she became pregnant, but the child miscarried. That she never had the opportunity to use the clothes may account for their survival.
Acc. Num: G1990-6clothing,pregnancy,nursing,underwear,sleepwear,adult,genderf,america,1785-1795,1795-1815,shift,nightgown,missing,
1790-1830; Europe; Block-printed cotton lined with linen
This banyan has waistcoat fronts attached at the side seams, which eliminated the extra layers of the closely fitted waistcoat back. This arrangement made the banyan more comfortable without sacrificing appearance.
Acc. Num: 1993-66clothing,evrydy,adult,genderm,banyan,1785-1795,1795-1815,1815-1840,
ca. 1790; Probably Virginia; Silver
This buckle was worn at the back of the neck to fasten a man's stock. Knobs on the buckle slipped over buttonholes worked into the tab of the stock. See stock 1993-166.
Acc. Num: 1978-88accessory,fashnacc,buckle,stock,adult,genderm,1785-1795,
ca. 1790; England or France; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Silk satin with silk and chenille needlework; vellum spangles; cotton-linen lining; linen interfacing
This waistcoat was made by a professional embroiderer. The embroidered outlines for buttonholes appear on both the left and right fronts but are cut open only on the left side. This curious feature suggests that the panels were either sold as generic yardage intended for waistcoats or were originally designed for a double-breasted garment.
Acc. Num: G1989-433clothing,fshn,adult,genderm,waistcoat,1785-1795,
ca. 1790; Britain; Frame-knitted silk, waistband lined with cotton, fall lined with linen
As men's breeches became tighter toward the end of the eighteenth century, stretchy fabrics such as knits gained popularity.
Acc. Num: 1968-106clothing,fshn,adult,genderm,breeches,1785-1795,
1791; London, England; Etched by James Gillray; published by Hannah Humphry
The woman in the print, usually identified as Queen Charlotte, wears a patched pocket that is nevertheless stuffed with gold coins. The artist is satirizing her thrifty—even stingy—nature.
Acc. Num: 1957-32clothing,pandps,adult,genderf,evydyacc,accessory,pocket,1785-1795,
1795-1815; Various objects, seen on the following pages; reproduction wig, headband, and stockings
Gown styles changed dramatically at the end of the 18th century. Waistlines rose to just under the bust, textiles were soft and drapey, and skirts fell close to the body. Slim lines made it less practical to wear pockets under the skirts, spurring the fashion for handbags, also called reticules. Newly fashionable shawls added warmth to relatively thin garments.They also enhanced the elegant lines and classical appearance of clothing inspired in part by Greek and Roman art. Shoes with low or flat heels coordinated well with the new neoclassical styles.
Acc. Num: n/aclothing,genderf,adult,accessory,fashnacc,gown,dress,1795-1815,
1795; London, England; Leather, silver, paper, silk, wool
Bound in one small volume is a calendar with pages for noting appointments, pages for cash accounts, and useful information for a well-born London woman, including lists of the members of Parliament, the baronets of England, princes of Europe, historical kings and queens of England, London bankers, school terms, and weights and measures. The owner of this almanac noted that she had two visitors on May 2 and 5 (Saturday and Tuesday) and attended parties on May 13 and 14 (Wednesday and Thursday) and the following week on May 18 and 19 (Monday and Tuesday). The book also includes slots for storing sewing and writing implements, wool leaves for holding needles and pins, and a mirror.
Acc. Num: 1993-115container,adult,genderf,fashnacc,evydyacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1785-1795,
ca. 1795; England or America; Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Bond; Silver, steel; marked P•L in rectangle (maker unidentified)
Acc. Num: 1976-79, 1-2adult,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,jewelry,buckle,1785-1795,
1795-1811; England; Cotton, linen
This stock is beautifully constructed from a lavish amount of material. Sixty-two inches of fine semi-sheer cotton are gathered into the three-inch wide linen tabs that fastened at the back of the neck. The stock has a history of being worn by John Knight (d. 1850) of Wolverley, England, at his wedding. It is not known whether it was worn at his first marriage to Helen Charlotte Hope in 1795 or his second to Jane Elizabeth Winn in 1811. Not unlike neckties, stocks were traditional in their styling and did not change significantly between those two dates.
Acc. Num: 2008-114clothing,adult,genderm,fmlacc,fashnacc,accessory,wedding,stock,neckwear,1795-1815,
1796; London, England; Hand-colored mezzotint engraving on paper; published by Haines and Son
Acc. Num: 1971-3328clothing,fshn,adult,genderf,genderm,pandps,1795-1815,
1800-1820; Spain; Silk velvet, silk woven with silver threads, and silk twill, all embroidered with silver gilt, sequins, and beads, lined with silk and cotton-linen, reproduction ruffles
Combining brilliant color, elegant materials, and heavy metallic embroidery, this suit epitomizes the richness of men's European court wear in the early 19th century. The silhouette is attenuated, with slim skirts and a high collar that reaches almost to the ears. In contrast to earlier suits of the mid-18th century, shoulders are more square and broad. The shape of the coat, which curves away from the body, hints at the cutaway coat that becomes the standard for men's formal dress into the 21st century.
Acc. Num: 1941-215, 1-3clothing,frml,genderm,adult,coat,waistcoat,breeches,1795-1815,1815-1840,
ca. 1800; South Carolina or Georgia, America; Gift of John L. and William W. Gignilliat; Ivory, watercolor, gilded copper alloy frame, reproduction ribbon
Acc. Num: 1991-1185,1clothing,pandps,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,jewelry,miniature,1795-1815,american,
1800-1820; Kasmir, India; Woven cashmere goat wool
Acc. Num: 2006-113clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,outerwear,shawl,1795-1815,1815-1840,
1800-1810; Paris, France; Knitted silk, silver gilt bouillon embroidery
Stockings such as these were worn for extremely elaborate and formal occasions. Emperor Napoleon had a pair of stockings similar to these for his 1804 coronation. These stockings are marked in the knitting near the top hem, "Paris" and "Rue de la Paix," for the city and street.
Acc. Num: 1991-513, 1-2metallic,clothing,adult,genderf,genderm,fmlacc,accessory,stockings,1795-1815,
1800-1830; France; Anonymous gift; Silk, silk and metallic embroidery threads, silver lace, paper, parchment, paint
This folding pocketbook is embroidered on the outside as well as on all six interior compartments with flowers and baskets in silk and metallic threads. Still inside the pocketbook are hand-painted and embroidered cards received or intended as Valentines. The sentiments, written in French, talk about honoring the recipients and sending greetings from the heart. One of the cards is stitched with silk through paper in a reversible embroidery technique; the front and back are equally finished. The greeting is addressed to the embroiderer's "Cher papa" (dear father) and sends her love.
Acc. Num: 1971-1420container,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1795-1815,1815-1840,
1800-1850; England; Leather, brass, iron
This functional leather bag was used to carry mail for Clungunford House, the name engraved on the clasp. Located near Shrewsbury, Clungunford House (pronounced "Clungerford") was the seat of the Rocke family.
Acc. Num: 1993-109container,adult,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1795-1815,1815-1840,post-1840,
1800-1820; England or America, worn in Pennsylvania or Maryland by Wistar or Morris family member; Silk, sized cotton stiffening, wire
Acc. Num: 1974-659clothing ,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,bonnet,hat,1795-1815,1815-1840,worn in America ,
ca. 1800; Barcelona, Spain; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Printed leather
One of these gloves is stamped in ink on the interior "Felix Torruella Barcelona". Gowns with long sleeves came into fashion in the 1780s, and short gloves were more appropriate for the new style than elbow-length mitts or gloves.
Acc. Num: 1991-494, 1-2clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,gloves,1795-1815,
ca. 1800; Connecticut; Gift of the Reverend Mrs. Mary Louise Howson; Cotton embroidered with cotton, cotton and linen lace
Acc. Num: 1989-59clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,cap,1795-1815,american,
1800-1820; England or America; Cotton
Acc. Num: 2010-105clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,collar,1795-1815,1815-1840,american,
1800-1820; England or America; Cotton
Acc. Num: 2010-106clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,collar,1795-1815,1815-1840,american,
1800-1820; America; Roller-printed cotton lined with linen
Even everyday clothing kept pace with some fashion changes. This short gown has the high waist of late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century styles. Located in the New York vicinity, the printed garment came with a handwritten tag that reads,"Aunt Logan'[s] Short Gown, given to Emily by Cousin Sarah M. Walker." Nothing more is known about Aunt Logan or her location.
Acc. Num: 1996-95clothing,evrydy,adult,genderf,america,short gown,1795-1815,1815-1840,
ca. 1800; France; Silk, silk chenille, wire
Although stocking garters often consisted of woven ribbons that were tied tightly around the leg, later garters used metal springs, such as this, to give stretch. Rubber elastic was not yet available. The garter has the word "ami" embroidered in.
Acc. Num: G1985-263clothing,accessory,fashnacc,garter,adult,genderf,genderm,1795-1815,
1801; London, England; Anonymous gift; Niklaus von Heideloff
Acc. Num: 1971-3066clothing,accessory,pandps,adult,genderf,fshn,1795-1815,
ca. 1801; Massachusetts; Gift of David S. and Clara J. Johnson; Silk lined with cotton, cotton back
A paper tag accompanying the waistcoat stated that New Englander Peter Speer wore it as his wedding vest in 1801. The purple and black silk textile is woven with a design of bald eagles, the national emblem of the United States since 1782. The cotton lining retains the stamp of the Charlestown Bleachery, a textile finishing plant established in 1801 under its full name, Charlestown Bleachery and Dye Works. The plant was located in Somerville, then part of Charlestown, Massachusetts.
Acc. Num: G1988-499clothing,fshn,adult,genderm,america,waistcoat,1795-1815,
1806-1827; Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Felted fur lined and trimmed with silk, paper label; made by Philip Heitshu and Son
Although the style of this hat looks eighteenth century, it was made in the nineteenth century. The label glued to the crown lining identifies the maker as Philip Heitshu, son of a German immigrant to Philadelphia. After a period of time spent in Loudoun County, Virginia, Heitshu moved to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1806 and opened a hat manufactory. He retired from the business in 1827. If a wearer is old-fashioned or thrifty, his or her clothes might date much later than stylistic features would suggest.
Acc. Num: 1992-227clothing,accessory,adult,genderf,america,fashnacc,hat,1795-1815,1815-1840,missing,
1809; Probably Maryland, Worcester County; Cotton embroidered with cotton, linen
Acc. Num: 2002-62adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1795-1815,america,
ca. 1810; England; Silk, linen, leather
Acc. Num: 1977-265, 1-2clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,shoes,1795-1815,
1810-1850; Britain; Wool broadcloth trimmed with wool livery lace, lined with wool and linen
Some suits of livery were highly elaborate in appearance, despite the relatively low status of the wearer. The suits were intended to proclaim the wealth of the employer, not the employee.
Acc. Num: 1954-1030, 1-2clothing,evrydy,adult,genderm,coat,waistcoat,suit,1795-1815,1815-1840,post-1840,
1810-1825; Possibly United States; Silk satin, waistband lined with cotton, cotton pockets
Men's long trousers began to enter high fashion during the late eighteenth century. Prior to that time, only laborers, sailors, and young boys wore long pants. The conversion to the new mode was gradual. By 1830, however, most men had adopted long pants for daily wear. Only formal suits, such as those worn at court, continued to have knee-length breeches into the middle of the nineteenth century.
Acc. Num: 1999-215clothing,fshn,adult,genderm,america,trousers,1795-1815,1815-1840,
1811; Britain or America; Bequest of Miss Martha B. D. Spotswood; Gold, silver, enamel, glass, hair
The rectangular brooch has woven hair beneath the glass and bears an inscription memorializing M. R. D., probably Mary Ruffin Gilliam Dunlop, in whose family it descended. Brooches such as this were sometimes worn centered on women's collars.
Acc. Num: 1981-136adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,mourning,jewelry,1795-1815,american,
1815-1840; Various objects, seen on the following pages; reproduction wig and 1900-1950 plume
In the 1820s, neoclassical styles had moderated. Waistlines began to drop, sleeves widened, and skirts gradually became fuller, often embellished with trimming around the hem. Fine cashmere or wool shawls from India and Paisley, Scotland, were especially fashionable accessories. Some gowns had separate removable sleeve extensions to add variety to a gown with short sleeves.
Acc. Num: n/aclothing,genderf,adult,accessory,fashnacc,1815-1840,
1815-1840; Various objects, seen on the following pages; reproduction wig, undergown, and gloves
In the late 1820s and 1830s, sleeves became extremely wide. Loose cloaks with capes on the shoulders went over wide sleeves better than a fitted coat would have. Because hairstyles were puffed up in curls and topknots, women used bonnets with boning or reeds for shaping to avoid crushing the hair. Muffs continued to be used for warmth, but were also a fashionable accessory carried indoors.
Acc. Num: n/aclothing,genderf,adult,accessory,fashnacc,1815-1840,
1815-1835; England or America; Cotton, mother of pearl
Acc. Num: 2010-104adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,collar,1815-1840,american,
ca. 1815, with contents from 1830-1856; Connecticut; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Crewel wool Irish stitch on linen canvas, cotton lining, paper
According to the family history stitched to the inside of this folding pocketbook, a schoolgirl attending classes in Litchfield, Connecticut, made this pocketbook for her father, Asahel Bradley of Stockbridge, Massachusetts. The Litchfield Female Academy, founded in 1792, taught girls from around the country. The curriculum included needlework and watercolor painting, as well as academic subjects.
Mr. Bradley must have cherished the pocketbook for many years. It is stuffed with letters, mementos, newspaper clippings, and poetry dating from 1830 to 1856. Several of the letters refer to the death of Bradley's two young grandsons in 1832.
The pocketbook is embellished with hand-done wool needlework covering a linen canvas ground. Called in the period "Irish stitch," the needlework involved vertical stitches on the surface of the canvas, stepping over three or four squares of the canvas at a time, often in a zig-zag pattern. Today the work is sometimes called "Florentine, bargello, or flame stitch."
Acc. Num: 1991-492container,adult,genderm,evydyacc,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1815-1840 ,american,
1815-1835; England or America; Cotton, mother of pearl
Acc. Num: 2010-104clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,collar,1815-1840,american,
1817-1830; Ireland; Horsehair, silk, painted tin
For symbolic reasons, British barristers continue to wear 18th-century style wigs hundreds of years after wigs have ceased to be worn as fashion. By the date of this wig, fashionable men were wearing their own hair, not wigs. W. H. Griffith, Esquire, whose name is painted on the wig's tin box, was Walter Hussey Griffith of Ireland. He was born in 1794 and became a barrister in 1817. He was still practicing in Dublin in 1850, when he appeared in the city directory with an office at 13 Clare Street. His son Walter Downes Griffith also became a barrister, as did his grandson, named Walter Hussey Griffith after his grandfather.
Acc. Num: 2008-118, A-Badult,genderm,evrydynacc,accessory,wig,1815-1840,
1820s; Paris, France; Leather, silver, paper
This leather bag came with a French horn musical instrument made in Paris. The musical compositions are horn parts for orchestral music.
Acc. Num: 2007-1, D and Econtainer,adult,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1815-1840,
1820-1850; England or Europe; Anonymous gift; Netted silk embroidered with silk
Acc. Num: 1971-1457container,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,purse,1815-1840,post-1840,
1820-1835; New Hampshire; Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Charles D. Carey; Cotton
According to family tradition, the cap was worn by one of two sisters, either Hepsibah Melendy or Sarah Melendy, of Amherst, New Hampshire. Mature women typically wore caps that covered more of their hair than those worn by younger women.
Acc. Num: 1990-192clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,cap,1815-1840,american,
1825-1835; Pennsylvania; Silk with silk and metallic embroidery, metal beads, and applied silk, wool, and cotton textiles
Acc. Num: 1958-408adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,muff,1815-1840,american,
ca. 1825; America; Anonymous gift; Silk, paper, mirrored glass, metallic threads, steel
This case is fitted with a mirror inside, not unlike a makeup mirror or compact of today. Inside the case is a package of three tiny needles wrapped in a paper folder; the needles were manufactured in Philadelphia. One of the early owners left examples of her miniature writing inside the case. The Lord's Prayer ("Our Father") is written on a piece of paper less than one inch square. A three-verse song entitled "The Wood Robin," written on paper 1 5/8 by 2 1/8 inches, was taken from a book published in Philadelphia by John Grigg. First published in 1826, his songbook entitled Southern and Western Songster was enlarged and republished in 1836. The text of the song reads as follows:
The Wood Robin
Stay sweet enchanter of the grove
Leave not so soon thy native tree
But warble still thou notes of love
While my fond heart responds to thee
[Indented] But warble still &c
[singer was to repeat last two lines of song]
Rest thy soft bosom on the Spray
Till chilly Autumn frowns severe
Then cheer me with thy parting Lay
And I will answer with a tear
[Indented] And I will answer &c
But soon as Spring enrich'd with flowers
Comes dancing oer the new-dress'd plain
Return and cheer thy Natal bowers
My Robin with those notes againv [Indented] Return and cheer thy natal
Acc. Num: 1971-1468container,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1815-1840,american,
1825-1840; America; Cotton, paint
Decorative aprons were a popular accessory. Examples such as this were more for show than for function. Stenciling was done with dye or paint tamped through cut-out designs on a stencil. The technique was especially popular for bed covers and other household furnishings in the second quarter of the 19th century.
Acc. Num: 1979.610.1clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,apron,1815-1840,american,
1825-1830; Britain or America; Gift of Tasha Tudor; Roller-printed and plain cottons, modern hooks and snaps
By the 1820s, many daytime dresses had high necklines and back closures, which required modifications to their design for nursing. In this example, the bodice front was made with a loose panel that could be unfastened at the waist and raised for nursing.
Acc. Num: G1998-231clothing,pregnancy,nursing,gown,dress,adult,genderf,1815-1840,america,
late 1820s; Massachusetts, worn in Maine; Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Charles D. Carey; Silk satin, linen, leather, silk ribbon ties
Acc. Num: 1990-189, 1-2clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,shoes,1815-1840,american,
ca. 1830; Europe, probably France; Anonymous gift; Silk, silk and wire chenille
Acc. Num: 1971-1418container,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,purse,pocketbook,1815-1840,
ca. 1830; Worn in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Rumford; Knitted silk, marked ECM with silk
Lacy pattern-knit stockings were especially fashionable in the 1820s and early 1830s. This stocking is marked ECM for Philadelphian Elizabeth Clifford Morris (1813-1892), who married Samuel Canby in 1832. The couple moved to Wilmington, Delaware after their marriage.
Acc. Num: 1983-321, 1clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,underwear,stockings,1815-1840,worn in America ,
ca. 1830; America or Europe; Gift of Tasha Tudor; Cotton embroidered with cotton
Acc. Num: 1998-229clothing,adult,genderf,fashnacc,accessory,collar,1815-1840,american,
ca. 1835; Britain or United States; Gift of Tasha Tudor; Printed cotton trimmed with wool and cotton bobbin lace, fully lined with cotton
During the 1830s, women's sleeves became enormous, only to deflate in the 1840s.
Acc. Num: G1996-264clothing,fshn,adult,genderf,gown,dress,1815-1840,
1840-1860; England; Anonymous gift; Crochet silk, metallic threads
Acc. Num: 1971-1459container,adult,genderf,genderm,fashnacc,accessory,purse,post-1840,
ca. 1841; England; Plate-printed cotton
By the 1830s cartoonists were lampooning steam-powered vehicles and locomotives that had been invented in the early 1800s and were becoming increasingly popular. This printed design, adapted from the work of Charles Jameson Grant (British satirist, active 1829-1846), shows an artist's humorous view of what transportation would be like in the year 2000. Obviously, the artist had limited success in predicting the future.
Acc. Num: 2010-31adult,genderf,genderm,evydyacc,accessory,handkerchief,1815-1840,post-1840,
ca. 1850; Britain; Wool broadcloth, cut-steel buttons, cotton lace ruffles, lined with silk and linen
By the middle of the 19th century, men's court suits followed a formula: dark wool cloth trimmed with shiny buttons, like these cut-steel examples, and embroidered waistcoats. Styled like a fashionable suit of 80 years earlier, this coat has a center-back vent and pleats trimmed with buttons at the top and peeking out from inside the folds.
Acc. Num: 1957-39, 1-2clothing,frml,genderm,adult,coat,breeches,1815-1840,post 1840,
1855; ____; From Peterson's Magazine, May, 1855
By the 1850s, women's gowns had extremely full skirts that contrasted with narrow waists. Women stood with heads carried forward and rounded backs, rather than the straight posture of a century earlier. Men's fashionable daytime suits had lapelled coats and long trousers. This short jacket became the basic model for men's suit coats over the next 150 years.
Acc. Num: n/aclothing,fshn,adult,genderf,genderm,post-1840,1850s,pandps,